In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with them) said: Once we were sitting in the company of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) when there appeared a man dressed in very white clothes and having extraordinary black hair. No signs of fatigue of journey appeared on him and he was known to none of us. He sat down facing the Prophet (SAWS) leaning his knees against the knees of the Prophet (SAWS) and placing both of his palms over his two thighs and said, “O Muhammad (SAWS)! Tell me about Islam”. He (SAWS) replied, “Islam is to testify that none has the right to be worshiped but Allah, and that Muhammad (SAWS) is the Messenger of Allah; that you observe Salat (prayers), pay Zakat, observe Saum (fasting) of Ramadan and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) of the House, provided you have resources of making journey to it.” He replied: “You have spoken the truth”. We were surprised to see that he had asked him and confirmed the correctness of the answers. He then inquired: “Tell me about Iman (faith)”. He (SAWS) said. “It is to believe in Allah, and His Books, and His Messengers and the Last Day and that you believe in fore-ordainment, its bad and good consequences.” He said, “You have spoken the truth.” He then inquired: “Tell me about Ihsan.” He (SAWS) said, “It is to worship Allah as if you are seeing Him; and although you do not see Him, He sees you”. He inquired: “Inform me about the Hour (i.e., the Day of Resurrection)”. He (SAWS) replied, “I have no more knowledge thereof than you”. He said, “Inform me about some of its signs”. He (SAWS) said, “They are -that a bonds-woman gives birth to her own master, and that you will find the barefooted, naked, poor shepherds competing one another in the construction of higher buildings”. Then he departed. The Messenger of Allah kept silent for a while then he said to me, “O ‘Umar! Do you know who the questioner was?” I replied, “Allah and His Messenger know better”. The Prophet (SAWS) said, “He was Jibreel (the Angel Gabriel); he came to you to teach you your religion”. (Muslim).
Commentary: This Hadith is known as ‘Hadith Jibril’. It mentions the basics of Islam the details of which are known to every Muslim. Al-Qadr (Divine foreordainment) means that Allah already knows and had recorded everything that will happen until the Day of Resurrection. Now whatever happens is in accordance with that knowledge and writing. What is meant by its good and bad consequences can be illustrated by saying that tranquillity, prosperity and abundance of crops come in the category of good consequences. Famine, calamities and troubles, etc., fall in the list as evil consequences. But we regard them good or bad according to our own understanding; otherwise, every action of Allah has some wisdom and expedience which are known to Him Alone.
SAWS: May Allah exalt his mention and protect him from imperfection
Riyaadiss-Saliheen (The Meadows of the Righteous)
By Imam An Nawawi
Chapter 5, Page 25, No 60